How To Advise The Muslim Rulers & How Not To Advise The Muslim Rulers According To The Quran & Sunnah – Shaykh Ahmad Bazmool (Plus Additional Points From Various Scholars)

Shaykh Ahmad Bazmool said:

1. Advising the leader in a secret/private manner that’s between the leader and the one advising.

As for the first manner of giving advice to the leader, it is when it is done privately. This is a foundation from the foundations of the methodology of the salaf, which the people of desire and innovation have opposed like the Khawarij and others. This is based upon that which is on the authority of I’yaad (bin Ghanam) that the Prophet said:  

Whoever wants to advise a sultan (leader/ruler) with a matter, do not do it outwardly but let him take him by the hand and go into seclusion with him. If he accepts it from him then that (is good) and if not then he (the adviser) has fulfilled that which was upon him (to do).” Musnad of Ahmad, as-Sunnah of Ibn Abee Aa’sim, authenticated by al-Albaanee.

(In the above hadeeth the prophet saidIf he (the ruler) accepts it (the advice) from him (the ruler’s subject) then that (is good) and if not then he (the adviser) has fulfilled that which was upon him (to do)”.

Therefore if a person gives a Muslim ruler advice and he does not accept his advice leave him alone, this is because if he rejects the sincere advice then ultimately the ruler is responsible for his rulership and Allah will hold him accountable for it.

The prophet said, “If the ruler orders people with righteousness and rules justly, then he will be rewarded for that, and if he does the opposite, he will be responsible for that (his rulership).” Recoded by Bukhari. 

The Messenger of Allah said, “Hear and obey, for they will bear responsibility for that entrusted to them (ruling over  Allahs servants), and you for that entrusted to you (hearing and obeying the ruler and advising him sincerely)”. Recorded by Muslim

So the responsibility Allah has given the Muslim ummah in regards to the Muslim rulers is that we give them the bay’ah (pledge of allegiance) to hear and obey him in what they like and dislike to the best of their abilities and to advice the leader secretly and sincerely for Allahs sake. If a Muslim does this he has fulfilled that which was upon him to do.

However even if he ruler rejects the advice the person still has fulfilled that which was upon him to do. Thus when some of the takfires or those affected by their dawah claims they are calling for armed revolt or demonstrations or they are involved in both or either  due to the Muslim ruler not accepting the ummahs advice to rule only by Allahs law these actions are haram. As these actions contradict what the prophet speech as the prophet said If he (the ruler) accepts it (the advice) from him (the ruler’s subject) then that (is good) and if not then he (the adviser) has fulfilled that which was upon him (to do)”.

The prophet Mohammed did not say if the ruler accepts the advice then that is good and if not then the adviser has to call for armed revolt or demonstrations  or be involved in both or either has fulfilled that which was upon him to do.

Calling for armed revolt or demonstrations  or be involved in both or either only leads to more haram than then the rules bad rule as the other actions will lead to more blood shed between the Muslims, hatred among Muslims and disunity in that Muslim state all of which is haram in the shariah.

Shaykh Abdul-Muhsin bin Naasir al-Ubaykaan used to be with the Qutbiyyah in the early 1990’s.  The Qutbiyyeen would shower praises upon him, accompany him and frequent his mosque in large numbers. He said: “in the past, I expressed my opinion in public; I now believe that public denunciations are a mistake, both on a religious and rational level. I continue, however, to give advice to and discuss matters with those in power, in private.”)

On the authority of Shaqeeq that it was said to Usaamah bin Zayd: quote: “Will you not enter upon Uthmaan and talk to him?”  So he (Usaamah bin Zayd) said: “Do you see that I don’t talk to him except that I make you to hear (what I say to him)? By Allaah I have spoken to him in manner which was between me and him without opening an affair that I do not love to be the first one to open it.” Recorded in Bukhari 3267. 

In this narration, we see that the advise given out in the open is an evil affair which will result in their being turmoil. Also we see that giving the advise privately is the origin in which the advise can be completed without their being turmoil.

(Advising the leader in a secret is a means of giving the Muslim ruler sincere advice for the sake of Allah as no is watching you and it is from the most excellent Jihad.

Indeed the Messenger of Allah said: “The most excellent Jihad is a truthful word spoken to an oppressive ruler.”  The hadeeth was related by Ibn Maajah (no. 4012), and Ahmad (5/251); and it was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no. 1100).

Note how this most excellent Jihad takes a real man (i.e. brave person not a coward) to undertake it as it can not be achieved by hiding behind others and talking about the Muslim ruler behind his back in the streets, masjids, gathering of friends or family, lessons, on the net, on TV it can only be achieved by speaking to ruler directly in secret and then keeping the conversation secret.

This most excellent jihad can also be achieved inshallah by using any other means of communicating with the leader only like emailing his office, a letter to his office or phoning his office etc and Allah knows best.

Advising the leader in is secret also a way of implementing part of the prophets saying, when the prophet said, “The Deen is Naseehah (Sincerity/Advice).”We (The companions) said: “For who?” The Prophet said: “For Allaah, His book, His messenger, the leaders of the Muslims and their common folk.” (Muslim)

Imam An-Nawawee said “Sincerity to the Leaders is to help them upon the truth. To obey them in it, to order them with it, to remind and advise them with kindness and gentleness (does not include backbiting, slandering or name calling the Muslim ruler), to remind them of that which they are heedless and neglectful of, to help them fulfil those rights of the Muslims that have not reached them yet. Not to rebel against them and to enamour the hearts of the people with obedience to them.”

Imam al-Khattaabee said “From sincerity to them is Prayer behind them, Jihad along with them (not jihad against them), to give the zakat (charity) to them, and not to rebel against them(the Muslim rulers)  with the sword when injustice or bad treatment appears from them (the Muslim rulers). And that they are not praised with false praises, and that duaa (supplication) is made for their righteousness.

(Fudayl Ibn Iyaad (d.187H) said, “If I had a supplication that would be answered, I would not make it, except for the ruler. Because when the ruler becomes righteous, the towns and the servants become safe and secure.” Refer to Hilyatul-Awliyaa (8/91-92).

Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H) said, “Verily I supplicate for the ruler, for his correctness, success and support – night and day – and I see this as being obligatory upon me.’’ Refer to as-Sunnah (no. 14) of Aboo Bakr al-Khallaal.

Imam Al-Barbahari states, “If you see a man supplicating against the ruler, know that he is a person of desire (meaning a person from Ahlu Bidah), and if you see a man supplicating for the ruler, know that he is a Sunni (meaning from Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah) inshallah.”  (Sharh Al-Sunnah p113, 114))

(Imam al-Khattaabee continues) All of this is based upon the fact that what is meant by the leader of the Muslims is the Caliph and other than him from the administrators who take charge of the affairs of the Muslims.”

Also Shaykh Abu Nu’aym al-Asbahaanee said, “Whoever advises the leaders and the rulers is guided, and whoever deceives them is misguided and has transgressed the bounds.”)

2. Advising the leader in front of the people outwardly in his presence while having the ability to advise him privately.

This is exposing (of the faults) and not advice (in reality). It is prohibited for the following reasons:  

1. It opposes the hadeeth of I’yaad bin Ghanam.

(The Prophet said, “Whoever wants to advise a sultan (leader/ruler) with a matter, do not do it outwardly but let him take him by the hand and go into seclusion with him. If he accepts it from him then that (is good) and if not then he (the adviser) has fulfilled that which was upon him (to do).” Musnad of Ahmad, as-Sunnah of Ibn Abee Aa’sim, authenticated by al-Albaanee.)  

2. It opposes the narrations of the salaf, as well as their methodology like we have seen in the narration of Usaamah bin Zayd (may Allaah be pleased with them both).

(The narration is: “Will you not enter upon Uthmaan and talk to him?”  So he (Usaamah bin Zayd) said: “Do you see that I don’t talk to him except that I make you to hear (what I say to him)? By Allaah I have spoken to him in manner which was between me and him without opening an affair that I do not love to be the first one to open it.” Recorded in Bukhari 3267

From the salaf – In Aqeedah at-Tahawiyah of Imam Tahawi it says

“When changing the evil of the rulers, then this should be done by the scholars and not openly as is mentioned by a clear Ahaadeeth of the Prophet “When you wish to correct the sultan then take him by the hand in secret and advise him.”” The full length version of this hadeeth was reported by Ahmad (3/403) and Ibn Abee ‘Aasim in Kitaabus-Sunnah (2/251): ‘‘Chapter: How are the leaders of the common-folk to be advised?’’   (2/521) with a Saheeh isnad and it was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Dhilaalul-Jannah fee Takhreejis-Sunnah (no. 1096))

3. It opposes the statement of the Prophet.

(The prophet said) “Whoever disgraced the ruler of Allah (by backbiting, slandering (lying) or twisting the truth about him) in the earth, Allaah will disgrace him.” at-Tirmidhee, authenticated by Imaam al-Albaanee

(In addition the story of Ibn Aamir when he was the Muslim ruler shows the impermissibility of disgracing the leader.

Once when Ibn Aamir was delivering a sermon and he was wearing a fine garment. So Abu Bilaal said ‘Look at our ruler wearing the garment of the sinners!’ So Abu Bakrah said ‘Be Silent!! I heard the Messenger of Allah say ” Whoever sends scorn upon the one whom Allah has given rulership to upon the earth, Allah will scorn him.’ hasan by Shaykh Albaani in Ibn Abee Asim’s As Sunnah)

3. Advising the leader in a private manner – which is between the leader and the adviser – then the adviser goes out and spreads what took place amongst the people.

As for the third manner, it is to advise the leader privately in that which is between the adviser and the leader then the adviser goes and spread that which took place amongst the people. This is prohibited based upon the following points:    

1. It opposes the hadeeth of I’yaad bin Ghanam.

(In that hadeeth the Prophet said, “Whoever wants to advise a sultan (leader/ruler) with a matter, do not do it outwardly but let him take him by the hand and go into seclusion with him. If he accepts it from him then that (is good) and if not then he (the adviser) has fulfilled that which was upon him (to do).” Musnad of Ahmad, as-Sunnah of Ibn Abee Aa’sim, authenticated by al-Albaanee.)

That is because the intent is to not allow the people to be aware of that which has taken place, as (the) evil (that has) taken place can/will be the result of that.

2. It is subjected to ar-Riyaa (showing off) and it is a sign of the weakness of one’s sincerity.  

(Riyaa is minor shirk thus it weakness a person sincerity. Sincerity to Allah while doing an act of worship means to do that act of worship only for the sake of Allah.

But riyaa contradicts sincerity to Allah as it involves someone doing an act of worship with the intention that people may see them and praise them for doing this act of worship.

Riyaa also includes doing an act of worship sincerely for Allah and then realising some people are watching, so the doer then tries to make the act of worship even better to impress the on lookers.

The Messenger of Allah said, “Indeed the thing that I fear most for you is the minor shirk.” The companions asked, “And what is minor shirk, Oh Messenger of Allah?” He said, “It is Ar-Riyaa. Allah will say to the people of riyaa on the Day of Judgement – when the people are being re-payed for their deeds – ‘Go to those who you showed off your deeds to in the worldly life then see if you can find any reward with them!’”  Reported by Imam Ahmad and Authenticated by Shaykh Al-Albani)

3. It leads to turmoil, chaos, and separation of the Muslim jamaah.

(The jamaah shaykh Bazmool was referring to his the main body of Muslims that are either united behind one caliph due to their bay’ah (pledge of allegiance) to him  if that exist or those united by the Muslim ruler due to their bay’ah (pledge of allegiance), who rules an individual state if no caliph exist like in our times.

Shaykh As-San’aani explained the in the first hadeeth below from Saheeh Muslim that separated from the jamaah (main body) means “split off from the Jamaah (main body) who agreed upon an imam (a Muslim ruler), under whom their body and affairs are organized, their word is united, and their protection from their enemy is achieved.”

The prophet said,One who defected from obedience (to the ruler) and separated from the jamaah (the main body) of the Muslims, if he died in that state he would die the death of one belonging to the days of Jaahiliyyah. Saheeh Muslim

The Prophet said, “Whosoever sees something from his leader of sin, then let him hate whatever occurs from sin.  And let him not remove his hand from obedience, since whoever removes his hand from disobedience and splits off from the Jamaah (united body), then he dies the death of Jaahiliyyah.’’ Recorded by Bukhari and Muslim

The Prophet said: “… and whoever dies split off from the Muslims (jamaah/main body) will die the death of Jaahiliyyah!” Recorded by Muslim 

Ibn Umar reported that the Prophet said:   “Anyone who removes his hand from obedience (to the Muslim ruler) will meet Allah on the Day of Rising with no proof. Anyone who dies without having given the oath of allegiance will die the death of the Jaahiliyyah“. Recorded by Muslim

Ibn Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah said:   “Anyone who dislikes something from his leader should be patient. Anyone who abandons obedience to the Emir (leader/ruler) for even a short time dies the death of the Jaahiliyyah“. Recorded by Bukhari and Muslim

The prophet said, “…one who dies without having bound himself by an oath of allegiance (to a Muslim ruler) will die the death of one belonging to the days of Jaahiliyyah.” Saheeh Muslim

Therefore it is clear that those who publicly speak about the ruler are those who causes a split among the Muslims who where originally united in their obedience to the Muslim ruler of an individual state or the caliph (if it exists).

However when a person or in our times groups of people go around talking about the Muslim ruler behind his back then some people take back their bay’ah or with hold it altogether from the ruler.

These Muslims then become their own jamaah which is one that is in oppositions to the rulers as they are a jamaah of Muslims who refuse to hear and obey the ruler.

These Muslims are threatened in all of the above hadeeth based on their not hearing and obeying the ruler and their splitting from the jamaah of the Muslims. They are threatened by the prophet Mohammed that they will die a death of Jaahiliyyah.

The reason why they are threatened with this is because Jaahiliyyah specifically refers to the period before the coming of the Prophet.

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-Uthaymeen said:  What is meant by Jaahiliyyah is the time before the Prophet was sent…” Al-Qawl al-Mufeed ‘ala Kitaab al-Tawheed (2/146); Majmoo’ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (10/ p. 601).

However Jaahiliyyah in a general sense Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said it refers to, “everything that was contrary to the message brought by the Messengers, namely Judaism and Christianity, was Jaahiliyyah. That was Jaahiliyyah in the general sense… although the word Jaahiliyyah is usually used to refer to the Arabs and their former ways, the meaning is still the same.” Iqtida’ al-Siraat al-Mustaqeem

In this time there was much ignorance this is also it was called Jaahiliyyah as it refers to two things that where combined in this period: jahl (ignorance) and jahaalah (foolishness).

In al-Mu’jam al-Waseet (1/300) it says, “Jaahiliyyah refers to the ways of the Arabs before Islam, namely foolishness and misguidance”

Al-Mannaawi said, “Jaahiliyyah refers to the time before the Prophet was sent; they called it that because of the extent of their ignorance.” Fayd al-Qadeer (1/462). 

Due to the Arabs ignorance in this time they never used to hear and obey their rulers and they use to die in this state hence the prophet referred to the Muslims who do not hear and obey their ruler and therefore spilt off from the jamaah and die in this state as people who died in the state of Jaahiliyyah (pre-Islamic ignorance). The reason for this description was because this sort of behavior just described was a characteristic of the Arabs in Jaahiliyyah and is not a characteristic of a Muslim.

Imam Mohammed Ibn Abdul Wahhab said in Jaahiliyyah the people “They held the acts of opposing the figure of authority and failing to comply with him as being something virtuous. And they saw the acts of hearing and obeying as being humiliating and degrading. So Allaah’s Messenger, sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, opposed them and commanded that patience be observed when facing the oppression of the rulers. And he commanded with hearing and obeying them,3 as well as advising (them). And he, sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, spoke extensively in regards to that and he constantly brought it up and repeated it. Taken from his book Aspects of the Days of Ignorance (Masaa’il-ul-Jaahiliyyah))

4. It is from disgracing the leader, therefore opposing the statement of the Prophet which was mentioned previously.

(The statement is “Whoever disgraced the ruler of Allah (by backbiting, slandering (lying) or twisting the truth about him) in the earth, Allah will disgrace him.” at-Tirmidhee, authenticated by Imaam al-Albaanee)

4. Criticizing the leader in his absence in gatherings, lectures, khutbas (sermons) and classes.

This is also prohibited for following reasons:  

1. It is considered from the spreading of evil.

Allah has said, “Verily those who love to spread indecency amongst those who believe for them is a painful punishment in the life of this world and in the hereafter, and Allaah knows and you do not.” (Surah an-Noor:19)  

2. It is backbiting.

Allah has said, “and Do not backbite one another.” (Surah al-Hujaraat:12)

On the authority of Abee Hurayrah that the Prophet said: “Do you know what gheebah (backbiting) is?” The companions said: “Allaah and His messenger knows best.” The Prophet said: “Your mentioning of your brother that which he dislikes.” It was said: “Do you see it (to be ok) if what I say is [true] present in my brother?” The Prophet said: “If what you say is in him then you have backbit him and if it is not in him, then you have slandered (because of the lies told about) him.” Recorded in Muslim 2579.

3. It opposes the hadeeth of I’yaad bin Ghanam.

(In that hadeeth the Prophet said, “Whoever wants to advise a sultan (leader/ruler) with a matter, do not do it outwardly but let him take him by the hand and go into seclusion with him. If he accepts it from him then that (is good) and if not then he (the adviser) has fulfilled that which was upon him (to do).” Musnad of Ahmad, as-Sunnah of Ibn Abee Aa’sim, authenticated by al-Albaanee.)

4. It opposes the guidance of the righteous predecessors (the salaf as-saalih) in how the advice should be given.

(A beautiful story from the times of the very early salaf about a conversation and advice given by Abdullaah Ibn Abee Awfaa to Sa’eed Ibn Jumhaan related to advising the Muslim ruler who is oppressive explains the guidance of the righteous predecessors (the salaf as-saalih) in how advice should be given to the Muslim ruler.

(Shorten version of the story)

So I (Sa’eed Ibn Jumhaan) said: Verily the ruler is oppressing the people and affecting them. 

He said (Abdullaah Ibn Abee Awfaa), So give him your hand, and connect your hand to his firmly.

Then he (Abdullaah Ibn Abee Awfaa) said, “Woe to you O Ibn Jumhaan! Stick to the Suwaadul-A’dtham, stick to the Suwaadul-A’dtham! 

If the ruler will listen to you, then go to his house and inform him of what you kfnow. So he may accept from you, but if not, then leave him; since you do not know more than him.’’’

This incident was reported by Ahmad (4/3272-372), it was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Dhilaalul-Jannah (no. 508).

Abdullaah Ibn Abee Awfaaadviced Ibn Jumhaan to speak with the ruler in the rulers house. So he advised him to speak to the ruler in private not openly in public, not behind his back in private with a small amount of people or in public with many people via the masjids, internet, TV, newspapers, magazines or leaflets etc.

However unfortunately today you find takfires claiming to be upon the Sunnah while they often criticize the Muslim rulers and governments in their absence in their sittings, their lectures, khutbahs (sermons), the classes, on TV and on the net etc. Therefore they do not advice the ruler in private.

The Prophet said, “Whoever wants to advise a sultan (leader/ruler) with a matter, do not do it outwardly but let him take him by the hand and go into seclusion with him. If he accepts it from him then that (is good) and if not then he (the adviser) has fulfilled that which was upon him (to do).” Musnad of Ahmad, as-Sunnah of Ibn Abee Aa’sim, authenticated by al-Albaanee. This hadeeth indicates the ruler must be advised in private not publicly like many takfires do.

Advising the ruler could also involve other private ways such as: the person could write a letter, give the letter to someone (only this person) who may be able to give it to the ruler directly, email his office, phone his office or tell someone (only this person) who may be able to advise him your advice in the hope it will get to the ruler (due necessity) or any other private non public way.

Also Abdullaah Ibn Abee Awfaaadviced Ibn Jumhaan to speak with the ruler as this does not involve backbiting which is haram, but the takfires still do it in way especially in their protests, lessons and writing. They are often full of backbiting the Muslim ruler and the Muslim governments.

 Allah said, “and Do not backbite one another.” (Surah al-Hujaraat:12))  

5. It is from disgracing the leader which is prohibited as has preceded.

(The prophet Mohammed said, “Whoever disgraced the ruler of Allaah (by backbiting, slandering (lying) or twisting the truth about him) in the earth, Allaah will disgrace him.” at-Tirmidhee, authenticated by Imaam al-Albaanee)

6. It leads to the unlawful shedding of blood and unjust killing.  

(Criticizing the Muslim ruler in public often leads to the Muslims becoming divided and often leads to the takfires (the Khawarij of this era) fighting the Muslim arm, and Muslim police force of that particular state and sometimes they even fight those who support the Muslim leader and dislike them for causing turmoil in their home land.

Due to the fact the Khawarij of every era kill Muslims, the prophet said about the Khawarij “…They will murder the people of Islam while ignoring the people of idol-worship…” Recorded by al-Bukhari (no. 3344), Muslim (no 1064), al-Nasa’i (no. 2578), and Abu Dawud (no.4764). It is also in “aee al-Jami’” by al-Albani (no. 2223) and “al-Lu’lu’ wa al-Marjan” (no.639).

Once the Prophet (Mohammed) was riding his camel and a man was holding its rein. The Prophet asked, “What is the day today?” We kept quiet, thinking that he might give that day another name. He said, “Isn’t it the day of Nahr (slaughtering of the animals of sacrifice i.e. Eid al-Adha)” We replied, “Yes.” He further asked, “Which month is this?” We again kept quiet, thinking that he might give it another name. Then he said, “Isn’t it the month of Dhul-Hijja?” We replied, “Yes.” He said, “Verily! Your blood, property and honour are sacred to one another (i.e. Muslims) like the sanctity of this day of yours, in this month of yours and in this city of yours (I think the city is Mecca but it may be Medina Allah knows best).” Recorded in Bukhari & Muslim.

Ibn Massood narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, “The blood of a man who is a Muslim is not lawful (i.e. cannot be lawfully shed), save if he belongs to one of three (cases):

  1. a married man who is an adulterer (commits illegal sexual intercourse);
  2. life for a life (i.e. for murder);
  3. One who is a deserter of his religion (apostate) abandoning the community (leaves the Muslims).” Recorded in Bukhari & Muslim.

Ibn Rajab stated that this hadeeth of Ibn Massood makes it clear that the death penalty is in any of the three cases…

  1. when a person leaves the religion,
  2. when a person wrongfully spills the blood of another,
  3. and when the person engages in illegal sexual intercourse.

Ibn Rajab then goes on to say that the stated punishment for the married adulterer is simply an example of the type of crime that leads to the death penalty.

If a person has legal means to sexual intercourse and then he still insists on committing illegal sexual intercourse, he has committed such a heinous crime that he no longer deserves to live. If that is true, what about those people who indulge in sexual practices that are not allowed under any circumstances, such as homosexuality and animal bestiality.

These cases are even worse and more deserving of such punishment than adultery. Hence, the stated punishment for adultery implies that these other cases should also be dealt with in the same way.

The second category (this the category that criticizing the Muslim ruler behind his back in public leads to), is the one who sheds another’s blood unlawfully. Certainly, causing civil commotion and disruption among the Muslim nation also leads to the same result. Hence, the one who does the act that would lead to the same result is to receive the same punishment, as mentioned in the hadeeth above. The same holds true for the alcoholic. His actions may certainly lead to the spilling of blood. Hence, he is deserving of that same punishment.

The third category is the one who apostates. This includes all forms of apostasy. In fact, some scholars even say that those who are calling to clear innovations that contradict the basis of Islam are to be killed, based on this hadeeth. In fact, the prophet even stated that the Khawarij should be killed. The scholars though differ about whether they should be killed due to their heresy (i.e. their innovated beliefs that are completely different from the Islamic beliefs taught in the Quran and Sunnah) or due to their revolt against the Muslim rulers. Ibn Rajab, Jaami volume 1, pp 326-330).

Ref: Shaykh Ahmad Bazmools book ‘Al-Ma’loom min Waajib il-‘Ilaaqah bain al-Haakim wal-Mahkoom, (pp.22-23)’ what is in between the brackets is extra information from AhluSunnahWalJamaah.Com.

Posted by Abdul Kareem Ibn Ozzie

 

 

About Abdul Kareem Ibn Ozzie

I am a revert trying to spread the sunnah inshallah.
This entry was posted in REFUTATIONS OF THE KHAWARIJ CREED and tagged , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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