A Detailed & In Depth Look At Tawheed Al-Haakimiyyah, ‘The So Called Fourth Category OF Tawheed’

This article will deal with the issue of tawheed haakimiyyah (the so called fourth category of tawheed), the scholar’s stance on this tawheed and its implications.

But before this issue is dealt with in this article the issue of what tawheed is and its categories shall be dealt with inshallah.

Shaykh Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Naasir As-Sa’dee, said, “Know that Tawheed in the unrestricted sense is the knowledge and the acknowledgement that the Lord Allaah, is singled out with all the attributes of Perfection. And it is to affirm that He is singled out with all the Attributes of Greatness and Majesty. And it is to ingle Him out alone with all worship (What the Shaykh has said here is giving a description of the general meaning of tawheed.)

And this is of three categories:

1. The first category: Tawheed ul-Asmaa was-Sifaat (The Tawheed of Allaah’s Divine Names and Attributes):

It is to believe that the Lord Allaah – the Most Mighty and

Majestic, He Alone has total and complete Perfection in every sense, in that He has the characteristics of Greatness and

Majesty and Beauty which are such that nobody else besides Him has any share of those along with Him whatsoever.

And this comes about by affirming for Allaah that which He affirmed for Himself or His Messenger, sallallaahu alayhi wasallam, affirmed for Him with regard to all of the Names and

Attributes and their meanings, and the rulings which follow on from them – whatever is reported from them in the Book and the

Sunnah in the manner that befits His (Allahs) Greatness and Majesty.

(And this is done) without denying anything from them, without divesting them of their true meaning, without twisting their meaning and without causing them to resemble the creation.

And, by denying for Him, everything which He denied for

Himself, or was denied for Him by His Messenger, with regards to deficiencies and defects and denying everything for Him that conflicts with His Perfection.

2. The second category: Tawheed ar-Rubobiyyah (Tawheed of Allaah’s Lordship):

It is that the slave believes with certainty, that Allaah is the

Lord (ar-Rabb) Who Alone is singled out with creation, giving provision and controlling the affairs. The Lord He Who nourished and sustained all of the creation with His blessings, who nourished His chosen ones from His creation, they are the Prophets and their followers. He nourished them with:

  • The correct beliefs;
  • Fine manners;
  • Beneficial knowledge;
  • And with righteous and correct actions.

And this (latter) beneficial cultivation (tarbiyah) for the hearts and souls, that is the one that produces happiness and success in this world and the Hereafter.

3. The third category of Tawheed: Tawheed of al-‘Ibaadah (Tawheed of Allaah’s Divinity and worship):

It is the knowledge and the acknowledgement, that Allaah is the sole Possessor of Divinity, and the One Who has the sole Right to be worshipped over all of His creation. (And) that He (Allah) alone should be worshipped by them, (all of them, the creation) and they should make the Religion sincerely and purely for Allaah alone.

And this last category of Tawheed, it necessitates the first two

(Categories of Tawheed), and it includes them. (i.e. Tawheed of

Allaah’s Divinity and worship, necessarily covers and includes belief and affirmation of Allaah’s Lordship and His Names and Attributes.)

Because this divinity is a characteristic, that covers all the attributes of perfection and all the characteristics of lordship and greatness.

Because He Allaah, is the One Who is Divine, and has the sole Right to be worshipped. And He is the sole One Who has the Attributes of Greatness and Majesty.

And also as a further reason (to worship Allaah alone), is due to what He has given to His creation from the great blessings.”

Shaykh Fawzaan said, “In the Name of Allaah, the All-Merciful, may His Salaah and Salaam be upon His final Messenger, and upon all his family members and companions, and those who follow his way, to proceed…

Tawheed has three categories understood directly from Allaah’s Book. This division of tawheed is not from someone’s opinion, nor is it merely a traditional way to explain tawheed. It is a division that is taken directly from Allaah’s Book.

The first category is tawheed ar-ruboobiyyah, which means “to single out Allaah in understanding His Actions,” like His creating, providing, bringing of life and death, and keeping order in all affairs. A person understands that Allaah alone is the Creator, the Provider, the Ever-Living One in charge of all affairs.

The second category is tawheed al-uloohiyyah, which means “to single out Allaah within the actions of the servant.” This includes all actions that draw them closer to Allaah, Glorified and Exalted, like:

Du’aa’ – supplication, Khowf – fear, Rajaa’ – hope, Rahbah – awe, Ragbah – longing, Tawakkul – trust, Isti’aanah – seeking general assistance, Istighaathah – seeking assistance in emergencies, Thabh – slaughtering and Nathr – taking oaths.

All forms of worship must be strictly for Allaah alone, and nothing can be done for other than Him. This is what is called tawheed al-’ebaadah, or tawheed al-uloohiyyah, and it is the tawheed that is put into practice as the servant singles out Allaah in everything He has requested, with an intention for Him alone, in all acts of obedience.

The third category is tawheed al-asmaa’ was-sifaat, which means “to believe in every Name and Attribute that Allaah affirmed for Himself, or those that His Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) affirmed for Him.

These three categories are understood directly from Allaah’s Book. Every verse that mentions Allaah’s Actions, like creating, providing, bringing life and death, and controlling affairs, is describing tawheed ar-ruboobiyyah. This is quite frequent in the Quran.

Allaah says, “Say: ‘Who owns the earth and all that is on it, if you truly have knowledge?’ They will say: ‘Allaah.’ Say: ‘Then won’t you be reminded?’ Say: ‘Who is the Lord of the seven heavens and the Great Throne?’ They will say: ‘Allaah.’ Say: ‘Then won’t you have taqwaa?’ Say: ‘In whose Hands are the treasures of everything, and He protects while there is no protector against Him, if you truly have knowledge?’ They will say: ‘Allaah.’ Say: ‘How then are you deluded from the truth?’”  Soorah Al-Mu’minoon (23):84-89

Allaah also says, “Say: ‘Who is it that provides for you from the heavens and the earth?’ Or ‘who possesses hearing and sight and brings forth the living from the dead, and the dead from the living? And who is in control of the affairs?’ They will say: ‘Allaah.’ Say: ‘So then won’t you have taqwaa?’” Soorah Yoonus (10):31.

Similarly, every verse that mentions the creation of the heavens and the earth or other created things is about tawheed ar-ruboobiyyah.

Every verse mentioning worship, whether it be a command to worship Allaah or a prohibition of shirk, is about tawheed al-uloohiyyah.

Every verse mentioning something about Allaah’s Names or Attributes is about tawheed al-asmaa’ was-sifaat.

All of these categories are found in Allaah’s Book, and this is what led the scholars to say, “Tawheed is three categories: Uloohiyyah, Ruboobiyyah, and al-Asmaa’ was-sifaat.” They did not invent this division on their own; rather it is something directly from Allaah’s Book.” Duroos min Al-Qur’aan Al-Kareem

So form the words of the two shaykhs it should be understood what tawheed is and what the three categories of tawheed are.

Shaykh Abu Maalik Muhammad Ibraaheem Shaqrah in his treatise on Sayyid Qutb (the head of the takfire dawah of this era, he is now dead) state there is an ijmah about on these three categories being correct; he said “the consensus (ijmah) of the Ummah…is pleased that there are three aspects of Tawheed.”

Tawheed has one meaning which has been derived by a large number of scholars of AHLU SUNNAH of the past and present from Qati (definitive) proofs. Articles of faith can only be determined by Qati (definitive) proofs with a Qati text and with a Qati meaning.

A Qati (definitive) proof which has a Qati text is all of the Quran and Saheeh (authentic) Mutawatir hadeeth (a mutawatir hadith is one which is reported by such a large number of people that they cannot be expected to agree upon a lie, all of them together) hadeeth, because they have been reported in a conclusive way that has made the text authentic beyond doubt.

A Qati (definitive) proof which has a Qati meaning is majority of the Quran and some Saheeh (authentic) Mutawatir hadeeth, that have been reported in clear words (Alfaz al Waziha) which have only one meaning (Dalalah).

This meaning of Tawheed has been classified into different categories by the scholars of AHLU SUNNAH of the past and present for the purposes of teaching Tawheed and making it easy to understand all the different aspects of Tawheed.

Unlike the meaning of Tawheed the different categories of Tawheed are based on ijtihad of individual scholars from AHLU SUNNAH from the past and present. The reason these scholars resorted to ijtihad is because as time went on the Muslim became more and more ignorant of tawheed so these scholars understood that they the need, for the ummah to understand, implement and call to tawheed. Therefore they want to find the easy way to explain Tawheed to the ummah as it was in need of it.

So due to the necessity (daroorah) of understanding, implementing and calling to tawheed, the scholars from AHLU SUNNAH of the past and present used ijtihad to come up with the classifications of Tawheed. This was done in order to lessen the evil of Muslims being negligent in learning and being deficient in their understanding of Tawheed.

As there was no clear text (Nass) available in the Quran and the Sunnah, stating the classification of tawheed these scholars had to employ ijtihad to research through the Quran, Sunnah, Ijmahs and Qiyases (analogical dedications) to find out the correct and easiest classifications of Tawheed.

Based upon the ijtihad of the scholars from AHLU SUNNAH of the past and present they came up with two ways of classifying Tawheed however in reality the two different classifications all implied the same thing and only differed in the names used to classify Tawheed.

The first way used to classify Tawheed was by calling the categories of Tawheed:

  1. Tawheed Al-’Ilm wa’l-’Atiqaad (Tawheed of Knowledge and Beliefs) also known as Tawheed fi’l-Ithbaat wa’l-Maa’rifah (Tawheed of Acknowledgement and Knowledge)
  2.  Tawheed fi’l-Talib wa’l-Qasd (Tawheed of Solicitation and Intent) also known as Tawheed Al-Qasd wa’l-Iraadah (Tawheed of Intention and Purpose).

This way of classifying tawheed was the most popular way of classifying Tawheed in the past thus it became the most well known way of the salaf to categorise Tawheed. Some Muslims even think that it was the only way the salaf categorised Tawheed, this opinion is incorrect.

Ibn Abee Al-’Izz (who was from the salaf died 792 AH), said in his chapter of Tawheed in Sharh of the Ta’hawiwwah: “Further, the Tawheed to which the Messengers invited and which was the main context of the revealed Books are of two kinds:

  • Tawheed fi’l-Ithbaat wa’l-Maa’rifah (Tawheed of Acknowledgement and Knowledge): The first is to acknowledge the Being (and existence) of Allaah, the Most High, along with all His Attributes, Acts and Names. In this, He is unique. There is none like Him in all these characteristics – as Allaah Himself and His Messengers informed us. And
  •  Tawheed fi’l-Talib wa’l-Qasd (Tawheed of Solicitation and Intent): The second, the Tawheed of Solicitation and Intent, has been well defined by the following short chapter from the Qur’aan: [Say: O you disbelievers… (Al-Kaafiroon, 1)] And: [Say: O People of the Book, come to an equitable term between yourselves and us, that we shall worship none but Allaah… (Aal-'Imraan, 64)] [Look to "Sharh' Al-'Aqeedah At-Tahawiyyah" eng. Trans. Pg. 8-9, published by Al-Attique]

The second way to classify Tawheed is:

  1.  Tawheed Ar Ruboobiyyah (Tawheed Lordship)
  2. Tawheed Al Uloohiyyah also known as Tawheed ul-Ibadah (Tawheed Worship)
  3. and Tawheed Al Asmaa was Sifaat (Tawheed Of Allahs Names & Attributes)

This way of classifying tawheed is used today by the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah; some Muslims claim the salaf never used this classification however this untrue; some of the salaf used it however the first categorisation mentioned above was more popular.

Imam as-Safaareenee (who was from the salaf he died 1112 hijri year/1700 C.E.) said, “Know that Tawheed has three divisions: Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah (the Oneness of God in His Lordship), Tawheed al- Uloohiyyah (to single-out Almighty God alone for worship) and Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat (the uniqueness of God’s Names and Attributes).” [Lawaami' al-Anwaarul-Bahiyyah (1/128) of as-Safaareenee]

These two ways of classifying Tawheed into two or three categories has led some Muslims to think these classification are two different things when in reality these classifications are the same but just with different names.

Tawheed Al-’Ilm wa’l-’Atiqaad (Tawheed of Knowledge and Beliefs) also known as Tawheed fi’l-Ithbaat wa’l-Maa’rifah (Tawheed of Acknowledgement and Knowledge) includes:

  • Tawheed Ruboobiyyah (Tawheed of Lordship)
  • Tawheed al-Asmaa’ was-sifaat (Allahs Names and Attributes)

Tawheed fi’l-Talib wa’l-Qasd (Tawheed of Solicitation and Intent) also known as Tawheed Al-Qasd wa’l-Iraadah (Tawheed of Intention and Purpose) includes:

  •  Tawheed Uloohiyyah which, is also known as Tawheed ul-Ibadah (Tawheed of Worship)
  • Tawheed al-Asmaa’ was-sifaat (Tawheed of Allahs Names and Attributes)

So from the above it is clear that the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah have used their ijtihad to come up with two different ways two categories Tawheed which are only different in name but not in the meaning they are trying to convey.

These findings of the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah which are based on ijtihad are essentially Zanni (speculative) proofs as they are not Qati (definitive) proofs, so their ijtihad can be rejected or accepted. 

These individual ijtihads of some of the scholars Ahlus Sunnah soon became universal accepted by all of the scholars from AHLU SUNNAH of the past and present. Thus these individual ijtihads soon became conclusive Ijmahs of the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah of the past and present.

A conclusive binding Ijmah after the death of the sahaba is the agreement of all mujtahid scholars (no matter what group they belong to i.e. Sufi, Ashari etc, as long as the group is not considered outside Islam by the Muslims (like the racist Nation Of Islam group who think they are Muslim but are considered kuffaar by all the Muslim scholars from every group)), on an issue of a particular time.

The agreement must be expressed by clear statements of these scholars stating there is an ijmah or this ijmah may be expressed through the opinions of all scholars of that time all agreeing with each other. An example of this type of ijmah is there collective believe that for a kaafir to become a Muslim this person must say and believe in the shahhadah.

This type of perfect ijmah is very rare in Islam due to the number of madhabs (most of which do not exist any more in the past there was much more than four madhabs) and the large number of groups in Islam (most of which have there own scholars though they may be deviant and misguided in some areas of aqeedah, manhaj or fiqh their general level of knowledge about Islam as a whole can not be denied. Therefore a innovator can be a scholar but he is just not upon the Sunnah (i.e. Sufi scholars.) thus this type of scholar should be avoid and the scholars upon the Sunnah should be followed). 

So the Ijmah that Shaykh Abu Maalik Muhammad Ibraaheem Shaqrah is referring to is the unanimous agreement of all of the mujtahid scholars of AHLU SUNNAH of the past and present the mujtahid scholars of AHLU SUNNAH of the past and present.

This agreement that Tawheed has three categories which are Tawheed Ruboobiyyah (Tawheed of Lordship), Tawheed Uloohiyyah also known as Tawheed ul-Ibadah (Tawheed of Worship) and Tawheed al-Asmaa’ was-sifaat (Tawheed of Allahs Names and Attributes), has been expressed by clear statements of these scholars stating there is an ijmah on this issue. Also this ijmah has been expressed through the opinions of all of these scholars on the issue of these categories all agreeing with each other with not even one scholar from AHLU SUNNAH of the past and present stating otherwise or objecting to the ijmah on this issue.

So this is an Ijma al-Sariah (explicit Ijma) of the scholars from AHLU SUNNAH of the past and present. This only occurs when all or a majority of scholars agree on something and no dissent is known to have been voiced by any other scholar or scholars of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah.

As the two main adillah (evidences) that the deen (religion) is derived from are the Quran and Sunnah after this the next adillah the deen is derived from is ijmah (consensus).

So just as the Quran and Sunnah are a hujjah (proof) in this deen so is ijmah of the sahaba and the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah, when their ijmah does not contradict the Quran and Sunnah or an already established ijmah by the sahaba or scholars.

Masaail (issues) are of two types, those that have been agreed upon by the Scholars of Ahlus Sunnah and those in which the Scholars of Ahlus Sunnah have differed.

The issue of the three categories of Tawheed which is the popular way of categorising Tawheed in this era or the two categories of Tawheed which used to be the most popular way of categorising Tawheed in the past, are both issues that have been agreed upon by the Scholars of Ahlus Sunnah so these three or two categories must be accepted and not added to by the takfires or any other Muslim.

If a person adds to a correct ijmah by Ahlus Sunnah then the addition is considered a bidah (innovation) which is rejected and not to be acted upon, the addition is just like someone adding an act of worship to the shariah this would be considered a rejected bidah (innovation).

However a deviant misguided Islamic writer called Sayyid Qutb from the 1950’s developed a concept called al-haakimiyyah which was to clarify that Allah has no partner in his judgement (Hukm) and in his legislation (Tashree). He tried to use this concept to make takfire of the Muslim rulers and governments of his time.

Soon other callers to takfire took on this concept and they added it to the three categories of Tawheed which (are the popular way of categorising Tawheed in this era) and claimed this concept of al-haakimiyyah is a new forth category of tawheed known as tawheed al-haakimiyyah.

They said this new fourth category of Tawheed was needed to help the Muslims understand:

  1. it is either major or minor kufr to rule by other than Allahs law (however the takfires always suggested it is only major kufr to rule by other than Allahs laws),
  2. that it is either haraam and a major sin or major shirk for any Muslim to legislate their own laws (however the takfires always suggested it is only major shirk for a Muslim to legislate his own laws)
  3. And that taking laws from the legislations of kufr is minor or major kufr (however the takfires always suggested it is only major kufr to take laws from the legislations of kufr).

This concept has only been applied to the Muslim rulers specifically and generally the Muslim governments by the takfires and by any others who call to it.

Through the use of this so called new fourth category, the takfires have TRYED to establish the takfir of the Muslim rulers specifically and then the Muslim governments in general due to them ruling by other than what Allah has revealed, legislating their own laws (which are other than the shariah laws) and taking rulings from the legislations of kufr (the secular laws of the colonialist who used to rule many of the Muslim countries).

So after the takfires have made these claims and the Muslims know that the three categories of Tawheed which is the popular way of categorising Tawheed in this era or the two categories of Tawheed which used to be the most popular way of categorising Tawheed in the past, are both issues that have been agreed upon by the Scholars of Ahlus Sunnah from the past and present.

Therefore it is upon the Muslims of this ummah to return this new issue and this new claim to the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah to ask them if what the takfires claim, that a new forth category of tawheed known as tawheed al-haakimiyyah should be added to the three categories of Tawheed is correct as it breaks the ijmah of the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah on the categories of Tawheed being two or three.

Allah says, “Ask the people of remembrance (the scholars) if you do not know.” {an-Nahl (16): 43}

These are the words of the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah on this very important topic:

Shaykh Saalih as-Sadlaan said, “And whoever makes al-Hakimiyyah a fourth and separate category of Tawheed is either an ignoramus (jahil) or an innovator (mubtadi’), he has adopted the views of the Philosophers and the views of those who have no knowledge of aqidah or of the shari’ah. Or he is a person who merely narrates [opinions from others] and does not even know what he narrates (from others)!” [al-Muslimun no.639].

Shaykh Nasir al-Aql – said: “And likewise, the claim that al-Hakimiyyah is the most special and specific characteristics of Ilaahiyyah (of Allaah’s right to be worshipped alone) has no basis and this is an innovated claim… And [the term] al-Hakimiyyah – in view of this – is amongst those problematic words and the Deen is not based upon it, and neither does the aqidah rest upon it. The understanding of the contemporaries of this term is not devoid of exaggeration and extremism and being engrossed with the meaning which in their view is intended by this term. [In my view] it is best to avoid it.” [al-Muslimun (no. 639)].

Fatwa of the Permanent Committee of Senior Scholars (no. 18870) dated 11/06/1417H is their statement: “Then making ‘al-Haakimiyyah’ a separate category is an innovated matter, which has not been the saying of any of the scholars as far as we know.”

Shaykh Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee was asked, “Our Shaykh, may Allaah bless you, the scholars of the Salaf, may Allaah have mercy upon them, mention that Tawheed is of three types: ‘ar-Ruboobiyyah,’ ‘al-Uloohiyyah’ and ‘al-Asmaa was-Sifaat,’ so is it correct for us to say that there is a fourth Tawheed that is ‘Tawheedul-Haakimiyyah’ or ‘Tawheed of Judgement?’ So he replied:

“‘Al-Haakimiyyah’ is a branch of the branches of Tawheed ul-Uloohiyyah, and those who focus their attention upon this newly invented saying in the present age use it as a weapon not to teach the Muslims the Tawheed that all of the Prophets and Messengers came with, but rather as apolitical weapon. So if you wish I will establish for you what I have just said, even though this question has repeatedly been answered by me, many times – or if you wish we will continue upon our topic.

I have said in similar circumstances, as support for what I have just said, that usage of the word ‘al-Haakimyyah’ is part of the political da’wah that is particular to some of the parties present today; and I will mention here something that occurred between myself and someone who gave the khutbah in one of the mosques of Damascus.

So on the day of Jumu’ah he gave a khutbah which was all about judgement/decree being for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. But this person made an error with regard to a matter of fiqh. So after he had finished the prayer I went forward to him and gave him ‘salaam,’ and said to him, ‘O my brother, you did so and so, and that is contrary to the Sunnah.’ So he said to me, ‘I am a Hanafee, and the Hanafee madhhab says what I have done.’ So I said, ‘Subhaanallaah! You have given khutbah that judgement/decree is just for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, but you only use this word to attack those rulers whom you think are Unbelievers because they do not rule according to the Islamic Sharee’ah. But you have forgotten about yourselves – that Allaah’s decree/judgement covers every Muslim. So why, when I say to you that the Messenger did so and so, why do you say, ‘But my madhhab is such and such.’ Then you have contradicted that which you call the people to.’

So if it were not for the fact that they use this saying as a tool for political propaganda of theirs, then we would say, ‘This is our merchandise that has been returned to us.’

So the da’wah that we call the people to contains ‘al-Haakimiyyah’ and other than ‘al-Haakimiyyah’: Tawheedul-Uloohiyyah and Tawheed of worship – that which you concentrate upon enters within it. We are the ones who propagated what you mention whilst you are focusing upon ‘al-Haakimiyyah,’ the hadeeth of Hudhayfah ibn al-Yamaan, that when the Prophet recited this ayah to his noble Companions:

They (the Jews and the Christians) took the Rabbis and learned men as lords besides Allaah. Soorah at-Tawbah (9):31

Then ‘Adiyy ibn Haatim at-Taa’ee said, ‘By Allaah, O Messenger of Allaah, we did not take them as lords besides Allaah.’ So he said, ‘When they made something lawful forbidden for you, had you not used to declare it forbidden; and when they made lawful something forbidden, had you not used to take it as being lawful?’ He said, ‘As for that, then it did used to happen.’ He said, ‘Then that is your taking them as lords besides Allaah.’

So we are the ones who propagated this hadeeth, and then it reached the others. Then they advanced one part of Tawheedul-Uloohiyyah or worship, with this innovated title for political aims.

So I do not see anything (wrong) in a terminology such as this if only they had not left it as mere propaganda without their acting as it requires. So it is, as I have just mentioned, a part of Tawheed of worship – but you will see them worshipping Allaah in whatever manner each of them feels like, and if it is said, as we have just mentioned in the incident of the man who gave the khutbah, ‘that someone is acting contrary to the Sunnah,’ or ‘this is something contrary to the saying of the Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa-sallam),’ then he says, ‘My madhhab is such and such.’

That judgement/decree is for Allaah alone is not just a proof against the Unbelievers and the mushriks, but also against anyone who transgresses against Allaah by contradicting what came from Allaah in His Book, and from His Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa-sallam) in his Sunnah. This is what I have as a reply to the likes of this question.”  Taken from ‘al-Muslimoon,’ no. 639, 25th of Dhul-Hijjah 1417H which corresponds to Friday the 2nd of May 1997.

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-’Uthaimeen was asked concerning this, and he replied that: “Whoever claims that there is a fourth category of tawheed under the title ‘Tawheed al-Haakimiyyah’ is to be counted as an innovator (mubtadi’). So this is an innovated categorisation which emanates from an ignorant person who does not understand anything of the affairs of ‘aqeedah and the deen. This is because ‘al-Haakimiyyah’ falls within Tawheed ur-Ruboobiyyah from the aspect that Allaah decrees whatever He wills.

It also enters under Tawheed ur-Ruboobiyyah in that the servant must worship Allaah according to what He has decreed. So it does not fall outside the three categories of tawheed, which are: Tawheed ur-Ruboobiyyah, Tawheed ul-Uloohiyyah and Tawheed ul-Asmaa was-Sifaat.”

Then, when asked, ‘How are we to rebut them?’ he replied:

“We rebut them by saying to them, ‘What does ‘al-Haakimiyyah’ mean?’ It does not mean except their saying that judgement/decree is for Allaah alone ‘ and that is Tawheed ur-Ruboobiyyah. So Allaah, He is the Lord, the Creator, the Sovereign Owner, the One in control of the affairs.

But as for what they intend by it and an explanation of the danger of this idea of theirs, then we do not know their intentions and desire, so therefore we cannot estimate the seriousness of this matter.’ Taken from ‘al-Muslimoon,’ no. 639, 25th of Dhul-Hijjah 1417H which corresponds to Friday the 2nd of May 1997.

Shaykh  Naasir bin Abdullaah al-Fiqaari – head of the Division of ‘Aqeedah and Contemporary Movements in the Faculty of Religion, Qaseem – said, “I consider that Tawheed ul-Haakimiyyah in the view of those who have made it a fourth and separate category of Tawheed – or [at least] with some of them – is actually linked with the issue of Imaamah (leadership) and not with the issue of Tawheed [itself]! So you will observe that the issue of Imaamah is the most fundamental of their principles, their sole concern and [constitutes the] core of their orientation in their terminology of dawah!

However, it is [in fact] a way that is foreign to the Sunnah and its people. This is because it is the Raafidah who make the issue of Imaamah the most fundamental principle of their religion. And the People of I’tizaal – those who left the Jamaa’ah (i.e. the Mu’tazilah) – have made it the fifth principle of their school of thought.”

Shaykh Ali Hasan al-Halabi said “Our Shaykh, Abu Maalik Muhammad Ibraaheem Shaqrah – is resolute in his treatise on Sayyid Qutb (p.54) that whoever uses this terminology [of al-Haakimiyyah] “is not correct in doing so” and he described the term itself that it “is not supported in the language” (p. 57). He also said, “Some of those who have come out against us – in recent times – with the statement “Tawheed ul-Haakimiyyah”, then this is but a bubble that they have embellished and beautified for themselves. It will not take long before it ends up as nothing and vanishes.” And he also said, “Certainly, the word “al-Haakimiyyah” when it is annexed to the word “Tawheed” necessitates splitting from the consensus of the Ummah which is pleased that there are three aspects of Tawheed…”

Shaykh Fawzaan said, “And there are those from our present time that divide Tawheed into four categories so they say, Tawheed is four categories:

  1. Tawheed Ar Ruboobiyyah
  2. Tawheed Al Uloohiyyah
  3. Tawheed Al Asmaa was Sifaat and
  4. Tawheed Al Haakimiyyah.

And they base their claim upon their statement that the division of Tawheed is traditional and it is not terminated (at the three known divisions). So, there is no prohibition on adding to the three.

And it is said to this : The division is not Traditional, but indeed it returns to the Book and the Sunnah. And the salaf whenever they divided Tawheed into three divisions they extracted them from the Kitaab and the Sunnah.

As for al-Haakimiyyah, then it is truthful. It is obligatory that the rulings return to the Sharee’ah of Allah , the Exalted and Most High, but this is included in Tawheed al-Ibaadah (al-Uloohiyyah), because it is obedience to Allah, the Exalted and Most High, and the salaf did not neglect Tawheed al-Haakimiyyah because of which we need someone to come later than them and add it, but they considered it included in Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah!

Because from the worshipping of Allah, the Exalted and Most High, is obedience to Him on the rulings of His sharee’ah, so it is not made a separate category. And if this was not the case, it would have been upon us to make as-Salaah (prayers) a separate category, from the categories of Tawheed, and az-Zakaah (charity required from those who fulfill certain conditions) as a category and as-Siyaam (fasting) as a category and al-Hajj (pilgrimage to the House of Allah in Makkah) as a category and all the different types of worship would have been made categories of Tawheed, and Tawheed would’ve had an amount of categories which will never end! And this is wrong.

But all the categories of Ibaadah (worship) are included in one category and that is Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah, for verily, it gathers all of that together in itself and it prohibits the entrance of other than that.

And one who opposes at-Tawheed, he is called a Mushrik (one who associates with Allah in Tawheed) or a Kaafir (someone who is made aware of the message of Islaam but refuses to worship Allaah , a disbeliever) , and one who opposes this obedience (to the Messenger) then he becomes a Mubtadi’a (innovator).

These are the sayings of those who oppose Ahlus Sunnah, in the division of Tawheed and they are either a Mufrit or a Mufarrit.

The Mufrit is the one who adds to the three divisions of Tawheed, and the Mufarrit is one constrains it to one category and ignores the rest; in fact (he) ignores the most important of them, the category which has been demanded (from the creation), and that is Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah.

As for Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah, so then all of the ummahs (nations) have confessed to its (truthfulness). No one denies it except the abnormal ones from the creation, who have denied it out of pride and stubbornness, despite the fact that they know this (to be the truth) in the depths of their souls. So all of the creation acknowledge that indeed Allah is the creator, the provider, the ever living that never dies, the disposer of affairs but this is not the Tawheed which has been demanded (from the creation).” Lessons from the Glorious Quran

From the above words of the scholars Tawheed al Haakimiyyah is a part of tawheed which falls within the three classifications of tawheed, which are Tawheed Ruboobiyyah, Uloohiyyah and Asmaa wa Sifaat.

The reason Tawheed al Haakimiyyah falls within the three above classifications of tawheed is because;

  1. Allah alone legislates and this is part of his Ruboobiyyah, legislating and because the servant must worship Allaah according to what He has decreed.
  2. All acts of worship have to be based on Allah’s laws to be classified as an act of worship to Allah, performing any act of worship sincerely according to Allahs law enters into Uloohiyyah.
  3. Allah is al-Haakim and this is from his Asmaa wa Sifaat.

Therefore it is clear there is no real need to make tawheed al-Haakimiyyah a fourth category of tawheed because the one who does that has only taken one aspect of Tawheed (which contains many aspects) advanced it given it this title and then added it to the three established categories of tawheed. By doing this they have split from the ijmah of the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah from the past and the present.

The takfires who do this have at worst innovated, a fourth category of tawheed and are therefore innovators, because an ijmah of the scholars is a proof in a religious matter just like the Quran and Sunnah are. So when the takfires oppose this ijmah (of the scholars of the past and present) by adding a fourth category to tawheed they are classed as innovators.

Those who deny they are innovators claiming the issue of the categories of tawheed is a matter ijtihad can not deny that the takfires are ignorant people when it comes to the matters of tawheed. Because they have claimed something No scholar from the past or present has ever spoken of (adding a fourth category to tawheed and calling it Tawheed al-Haakimiyyah).

Another reason for the takfires ignorance of tawheed is the majority of them often do not call to the other categories of tawheed. They only call to tawheed al-Haakimiyyah, by doing this they are going against the guidance of the prophets and messengers, in the sense that all the prophets and messengers including the prophet Mohammed called to all the aspects and categories of tawheed but they focused mainly on Tawheed Uloohiyyah not haakimiyyah. This is another matter that all of the scholars have agreed upon.

Plus the takfires are Mufrit because they add to the three divisions of Tawheed and the majority (not all) are also Mufarrit as they only focus their dawah efforts on calling to one category of tawheed (tawheed al-haakimiyyah) and ignore the rest Tawheed Ar Ruboobiyyah, Tawheed Al Uloohiyyah and Tawheed Al Asmaa was Sifaat).

Even though there is no real need to make tawheed al-Haakimiyyah a fourth category of tawheed as it goes against the ijmah of tawheed being three categories. It is not permissible to deny al-Haakimiyyah as an aspect of tawheed as it falls into the three agreed upon (by the scholars of the past and present) and well known categories (Tawheed Ar Ruboobiyyah, Tawheed Al Uloohiyyah and Tawheed Al Asmaa was Sifaat).

Shaykh al-Ghunayman said, “It is not permissible to deny Tawheed al-Haakimiyyah, for it is from the types of Tawheed.

But it falls under Tawheed al-‘Ibaadah (Tawheed Uloohiyyah) with regards to the ruler himself as a person. With regards to it meaning Tawheed, then it falls under ar-Ruboobeeyyah, because the Ruler is Allaah. So it should be that the Rabb is the Muttasarrif (Controller of affairs), He is the One who has the Hukm, so it falls under Tawheed Ar-Ruboobiyyah with regards to ruling, ordering, prohibiting, and carrying out, whereas regards to application and action then the slave is responsible for following the Hukm of Allaah, so then it is from Tawheed Al-‘Ibaadah (Tawheed Uloohiyyah) in this sense.

And making it into a fourth category doesn’t make sense because it falls into the three categories (Tawheed Ar Ruboobiyyah, Tawheed Al Uloohiyyah and Tawheed Al Asmaa was Sifaat). And the division without a reason is a cause of extra words which are not needed, and it is a simple matter anyway.

If he makes it a separate category then he is being redundant, and there is no harm in it.” (The Shaykhs words “there is no harm in it” means, that in the shaykhs  opinion though it makes no sense to add Tawheed al-Haakimiyyah as a fourth category to Tawheed doesn’t make sense as it is a cause of extra words which are not needed, he does not see the harm that such a matter brings about. Majority of the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah believe this matter does bring about great harm to the ummah however a minority (like the shaykh) view that it brings about no harm to the ummah, so this a difference of opinion on this matter.

However they all agree that making Tawheed ul-Haakimiyyah an additional category is against the ijmah on the categories of tawheed being three or two and they all agree that for this reason it is an innovation which makes no sense and is not need.”)

So Ahlus Sunnah do not deny al-Haakimiyyah (and what it implies) as an aspect of tawheed but they do not make it a fourth category of tawheed as they belief it is already included in the three well known categories of tawheed on which there has been scholarly consensus (ijmah).

Thus because Ahlus Sunnah does not deny al-Haakimiyyah and what it implies because it is included in the three well known categories of tawheed on which there has been scholarly consensus (ijmah)they belief:

  1. it is either major or minor kufr to rule by other than Allahs law,
  2. that it is either haraam and a major sin or shirk (that expels the doer from Islam) for the Muslims to legislate their own laws (which are other than the shariah laws)
  3. and that taking laws from the legislations of kufr is either major sin and  minor or major kufr (that expels the doer from Islam).

They always belief that all the Muslims of this time need to be educated about these issues.

What Ahlus Sunnah does deny and rejected is the idea that al-Haakimiyyah is:

  • A fourth category of Tawheed. They belief it is already included in the three well known categories of tawheed
  • Applies only to the Muslim rulers and the Muslim governments. Ahlus Sunnah belief this concept applies to all Muslims.
  • That this so called new fourth category, can be used ONLY to establish the takfir of the Muslim rulers specifically and then the Muslim governments in general. Ahlus Sunnah belief that takfir can be established upon ANY Muslim who violates al-Haakimiyyah not just the Muslim rulers or governments. But not because he has violated the so called fourth category of Tawheed but because by violating al-Haakimiyyah this person has violated all of the three categories of Tawheed to a lesser or greater degree. Due to the fact that al-Haakimiyyah is included in the three well known categories of tawheed on which there has been scholarly consensus (ijmah).

Shaykh Ali Hasan al-Halabi as explained the stance of Ahlus Sunnah on al-Haakimiyyah when he spoke about his own stance on this matter. He said, “I differentiate between al-Haakimiyyah with its correct understanding and meaning in the view of Ahl us-Sunnah and the adherents to the Manhaj of the Salaf and between al-Haakimiyyah with its restricted and limited meaning in the view of the mukaffireen (those who perform takfir), the sentimentalists and the agitators.

And this is because that “al-Haakimiyyah [that] belongs to Allaah alone” [Silsilah Ahadith as-Sahihah (30/1/6) of Imaam al-Albani.] – applies to every facet of life – [both] worship and regulatory matters, to both aqeedah and manhaj, to the guardian (amir) and the subject (ma’mur), to the ruler and the one ruled over – and it is considered one of the fundamental principles of the Salafi Dawah.

Whoever is confused between considering this to be “one of the principles of the Salafi (Ahlus Sunnah) Dawah” and between making it “one of the pillars of Tawheed ul-Ibadah (this is another name for Tawheed Al Uloohiyyah), then all we can do is to make a supplication of guidance for him…”

Side Points:

Question & Answers with Shaykh Fawzaan on Tawheed al-Haakimiyyah

Questioner 1: There is someone who has made a fourth category for Tawheed and called it Tawheed al-Haakimiyyah

Shaykh Fawzaan: [interjecting]… This is misguidance…, this is misguidance. This is misguidance and an [unnecessary] addition, which the people of knowledge have not affirmed. Tawheed is but two or three categories… this is contradictory, one person says Tawheed is only one category and another says it is four categories. All of this is misguidance.

Questioner 1: This person’s evidence is that the basis for this categorization…

Shaykh Fawzaan: [interjecting]… [words unclear].. Tawheed ul-Haakimiyyah an independent category and it does not enter into Tawheed ul-Uloohiyyah? It enters into Tawheed ul-Uloohiyyah! It is a type of worship and is a type of devotion to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

Questioner 2: He says that these three categorisations, al-Uloohiyyah, ar-Ruboobiyyah and al-Asmaa was-Sifaat, he says that this is a matter which is arrived at by the ijtihad of the scholars, or by way of investigation and analysis (istiqraa’).

Shaykh Fawzaan: That is sufficient for us, we will not add to what they have unanimously agreed upon, and they agree upon this.. [then] there comes an ignoramus in the twentieth century… he says ‘I am a Mujtahid and I will add to what the People of Knowledge have agreed upon’. This is misguidance…

Questioner 2: [interjecting]…

Shaykh Fawzaan: This is clear error! Because al-Haakimiyyah enters into Tawheed ul-Uloohiyyah. Who has made it another category or made it an independent category? Will he make the prayer into a fifth or sixth category and jihad a seventh category? [Because] all of the types of worship are from the types of Tawheed? This is not correct…

Questioner 2: So this is an innovated saying, this saying [Tawheed ul-Haakimiyyah]?

Shaykh Fawzaan: Yes, there is no doubt in this, it is in opposition to the Ijmah [consensus of Ahlus Sunnah]. None of the people of knowledge have ever spoken with it. It is in opposition to the Ijmah.”

The Fifth Category Of Tawheed Called Tawheed Ittibaa ar-Rasool (Tawheed Of Obedience To The Messenger)

Shaykh Fawzaan said “And from them (those who add categories to Tawheed) are those who add a fifth category to the fourth one and they name it ittibaa ar-Rasool (obedience to the Messenger) and this is wrong.

For the obedience to the Messenger is truthful and necessary but obedience to the Messenger is a requisite of Tawheed and because of this the shahhadah, (testimony of faith to testify) that nothing is worthy of worship except Allah is not correct. Except with the shahhadah that Mohammad is his (Allahs) messenger.

So a requisite of the shahhadah of Allah with Tawheed is the shahhadah for the Messenger with messengership. And this is a requisite of Tawheed, and not a separate category of Tawheed.” Lessons from the Glorious Quran

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About Abdul Kareem Ibn Ozzie

I am a revert trying to spread the sunnah inshallah.
This entry was posted in REFUTATIONS OF THE KHAWARIJ CREED and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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